### The Consequence of Particle Crushing in Engineering

Crushing has obvious effect on the evaluated coefficient of permeability.

### Crushing characteristics of four different proppants and

The permeability k 2 is expressed as: 6 k 2 = 1 C K − C × e 3 1 e × D e f f 2 S F 2 C K-C is an empirical coefficient, SF is a unitless grain shape factor, and D eff is the effective grain diameter given as: 7 D e f f = 1 ∑ i f i / D l i 0.404 D s i 0.595 where f i the portion of grains retained between two sieve sizes, the

### Front and Rear Car Crush Coefficients for Energy Calculations

The results revealed a linear speed-crush relationship for front and rear car surfaces and a restitution coefficient that decreased from a maximum of 0.33 at low speed to a relatively constant value of 0.15 for crush levels above 0.2 m.

### An analytical solution for the estimate of the mean crushing

considering the coefficient of the effective crushing distance , , is defined by: 54 d i f f = P m, r e f − P m P m, r e f · 100 % Table 4 . Reference vs. estimated value of the mean crushing force.

### Distinct element analysis of bulk crushing: effect of

Effect of Young modulus a and coefficient of friction b on the extent of breakage produced within the assembly by compressive loading crushing wall velocity=0.3 m s −1 . In order to study the effect of coefficient of friction on the particle breakage, two assemblies with Young& 39;s modulus of 16 GPa and coefficients of friction of 0.3 and 0

### Effects of Restitution in the Appli ion of Crush Coefficients

In each form of implementation, the effective overall coefficient of restitution in a given collision includes effects of the width and lo ion on each vehicle of the contact area, the detailed damage profiles, and the individual unit-width crush properties of the collision partners.